Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Green Ash, Red Ash




  • native to eastern United States
  • hardy to zone 2

Habit and Form

  • a medium to large, deciduous tree
  • 60' to 70' tall
  • 45' wide
  • oval, upright crown
  • medium texture
  • fast growth rate

Summer Foliage

  • opposite leaf arrangement
  • odd pinnately compound, decdious leaves
  • leaflets are 2" to 5" with smooth or toothed margins
  • leaflets are lanceolate leaf shape
  • kelly green leaf color
  • 5 to 9 leaflets, up to 1' long

Autumn Foliage

  • yellow fall color
  • showy


  • dioecious, with male and female plants
  • greenish flowers
  • not ornamentally important
  • bloom time is mid to late April


  • female plants produce samaras
  • large numbers of fruit can be produced
  • samaras are 1" to 2" long and narrow
  • some describe them as paddle-shaped
  • color changes from green to tan as they mature
  • not ornamentally important


  • gray bark
  • stout stems


  • full sun
  • prefers moist, deep, fertile soils for best growth
  • quite soil adaptable
  • soil pH is not critical
  • easily transplanted and established
  • tolerant of poorly-drained soils

Landscape Use

  • male plants are preferred for landscape purposes
  • lawn tree
  • shade tree
  • street tree
  • difficult growing sites
  • excellent for parks and campuses


  • female trees produce lots of seed, leading to numerous unwanted seedlings
  • ash dieback (mycoplasma)
  • ash borers
  • ash flower galls (male plants) caused by a mite
  • ash yellows
  • weak wood

ID Features

  • opposite leaves
  • pinnately compound leaves
  • female plants with paddle-shaped samaras
  • dark reddish brown buds, pubescent
  • leaf scars with a notch in them at top
  • twigs gray and buds brown
  • twigs stout


  • by bud grafting
  • by seed


'Bergeson' - This form may be one of the hardiest available, plus it is fast-growing to 50' tall with an upright habit. It is seedless and has yellow fall color.

'Cimmzam' (Cimmaron®) - This is a new seedless selection out of Ohio which is notable for its uniform upright growth habit whith good leader and lateral branch formation (to 50' tall and wider). Early reports indicate good fall color -- changing from glossy summer green to red and orange shades.

'Marshall's Seedless' (also known as 'Marshall') - This is an older seedless form that is very common in the trade. It is a vigorous tree reaching 50' tall with a broad oval habit. The summer foliage is deep green, becoming yellow in autumn. Some observers claim it is inferior to newer forms such as 'Patmore' and Summit'.

'Patmore' - Most observers consider this seedless cultivar to be among the finest, as it displays good disease and insect resistance and handsome, uniform habit. It grows to 60' tall and 40' wide with ascending branches and an oval crown. Fall color is yellow. It is common in the trade.

'Summit' - Confusion exists concerning whether this form is seedless, but it is notable nonetheless for its straight uniform habit to 50' tall (25' wide) and its early development of yellow fall color.

© Copyright Mark H. Brand, 1997-2015.

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Citation and Acknowledgements: University of Connecticut Plant Database,, Mark H. Brand, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, Storrs, CT 06269-4067 USA.